Form of government

Constitutional monarchy, parliamentary democracy

Head of state

King Willem-Alexander

Administrative regions

12 provinces; Drenthe, Flevoland, Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen, Limburg, Noord-Brabant, Noord-Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland, Zuid-Holland.

Administrative structure

Twelve provinces and the overseas territories of Aruba, Curacao and St. Martin. The overseas islands of Bonaire, Saba and St. Eustatius, all three of which are situated in the Caribbean, are ‘special municipalities of the Netherlands’




Western Europe, bordering the North Sea, between Belgium and Germany



Largest cities

Amsterdam: 779,808 inhabitants (2011)
Rotterdam: 610,386 inhabitants
The Hague: 495,083 inhabitants
Utrecht: 311,367 inhabitants


Total: 41,526 square kilometres
Land: 33,883 square kilometres
Water: 7,643 square kilometres

Land boundaries

Total: 1,027 kilometres
Belgium: 450 kilometres, Germany: 577 kilometres


451 kilometres


Temperate; maritime; cool summers and mild winters


Mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders)

Elevation extremes

Lowest point: Zuidvlaspolder – 7m below sea level
Highest point: Vaalserberg – 322m above sea level

Natural resources

Natural gas; petroleum; peat; limestone; salt; sand and gravel; arable land


16,773,019 (Q1 2013)

Age structure

0  – 20 years: 23.4
20 – 50 years: 40.3
50 – 60 years: 13.8
60- 65 years : 6.4
65 -80 years: 12
80-years and over:4.1

Population growth

48,000 (2012)

Ethnic groups

Dutch: 79%, other: 21% (of which 55% are non-Western origin; mainly Turks, Moroccans, Antilleans, Surinamese and Indonesians (2011)
Religions Roman Catholic: 27%, Protestant: 17%,  other: 12%, none: 44% (2009)


Dutch (official), Frisian (official)

*Source:  HollandTrade

Business climate advantages:

Gateway to Europe with Superior Infrastructure

Competitive Fiscal Climate

A hotbed for high-tech innovation

International Business Environment

Solid Workforce

Attractive Quality of Life


Holland in numbers:

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